miRNAs role within mammalian reproduction, allows a comparative understanding of fertility and sterility in male and females. The miRNA-mediated regulation of mammalian reproduction highlights the importance of miRNAs including the biogenesis of germ cells, the functionality of reproductive organs, and overall the development of early embryos.
miRNAs are active regulators of various biological and physiological processes including most of the events of mammalian reproduction. Understanding the biological functions of miRNAs within the context of mammalian reproduction, allows a far better and comparative understanding of fertility and sterility in male and feminine mammals. The miRNA-mediated regulation of mammalian reproduction and highlight the importance of miRNAs in several aspects of mammalian reproduction including the biogenesis of germ cells, the functionality of reproductive organs, and therefore the development of early embryos.
For proper development and function of the female reproductive tract the regulation of the differentiated functions of the organs that structure the female reproductive tract is to well known for multiple levels including transcription, translation, and posttranslational modifications. (miRNA) mediated posttranscriptional gene regulation has emerged as a fundamental mechanism controlling normal tissue development and performance.
miRNAs are expressed within the organs of the feminine reproductive tract where they function to manage cellular pathways necessary for correct function of those organs. Role of miRNAs within the event of the organs of the feminine reproductive tract highlighting recent studies that clearly demonstrate that mice with disrupted Dicer1 expression are sterile, fail to develop uterine glands, and have muted estrogen responsiveness.
miR-26b is expressed in high levels in fallopian tube and in cervix but not within the ovary and is proposed to manage apoptosis. miR-26a expression is abundant in bovine thymus, lymph nodes, small intestines, and embryo. miR-26a suppresses tumor proliferation as well as also antagonizes apoptosis and facilitates carcinogenesis via the regulation of EZH2 and MTDH. Micro-RNA (miRNA)-mediated posttranscriptional gene regulation has emerged as a fundamental mechanism controlling normal tissue development and performance.
miRNAs are essential during pre and post fertilization stages such as sex differentiation, germline initiation, gametogenesis, pre-implantation development and implantation of embryos but have very limited roles during the fertilization event. miRNAs has a direct involvement in X‐linked gene expression during the MSCI process of spermatogenesis and in the initiation of first embryonic cell division.